Image quality causes substantial bias in three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography measures. Dengue and severe dengue. Individuals in study 1 were 28 ± 6 years old and 10 (55.5%) were men. Male size was found to significantly exceed the size of conspecific females in only nine species, although 58 species (10.9%) with ‘range + mean’ data and 48 species (12.6%) with ‘mean’ data had negative SDIs. (2018) 41:PCA033. Reduced 3DE image quality impaired the reliability of 3D-STE derived LV dyssynchrony indices with test-retest reliability being poor for all indices when images were sub-optimal (Table 2). Oyenuga O, Hara H, Tanaka H, Kim HN, Adelstein EC, Saba S, et al. Adresse 3, rue de Bort les Orgues BP 50083 57072 METZ CEDEX 03. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. Yet when such questions arise, critics typically just […] Wij willen hier een beschrijving geven, maar de site die u nu bekijkt staat dit niet toe. Image quality is only one factor influencing the clinical utility of 3D-STE in assessing LVMD. The mechanical stability of the lumbar spine is an important consideration in low back injury prevention and rehabilitation strategie … LVMD can be measured by several echocardiographic imaging modalities such tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI), 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), 3D echocardiography (3DE), and 3D-STE (11). En poursuivant votre navigation, vous acceptez le dépôt de cookies tiers destinés à collecter vos informations par le Service Départemental d’Incendie et de Secours de Moselle (SDIS 57) ayant pour finalité la prise de contact et les renseignements de recrutement des différents personnels du SDIS 57. World Health Organization. The impact of a program for strengthening dengue hemorrhagic fever case management on the clinical outcome of dengue hemorrhagic fever patients. Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L, et al. The burden of dengue has been investigated in previous research using data from GBD 2013, however, this dataset had several limitations. However, these studies (15, 16, 19–22) including the study of image quality (18) were based on re-reading the same scans. However, the authors highlighted the lack of estimates of test-retest reliability which is the relevant measure for follow-up assessments of LVMD. Vous pouvez accéder à l’intranet en cliquant sur le lien ci-dessous. Br J Sports Med. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.09.010, 16. We aimed therefore to (1) quantitate the impact of intentionally distorted image quality on reliability and bias of LV dyssynchrony indices by 3D-STE; (2) assess the association between SDI-volume and strain-based LV SDIs. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. In total, 4 datasets per participant for each sub-study were analyzed. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2014.10.003. Al Saikhan L, Park C, Hughes A. P645 reliability of left ventricular dyssynchrony indices by three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography: the impact of intentional impairment of image quality. Lieutenant de sapeurs pompiers professionnels at SDIS de la Moselle . The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. |,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Find out the professional email of LAURENT FREYERMUTH, fonction publique for sdis 57, sdis 57 Skype: rbslocum or by appt. Natuurlijk Intratuin! doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2013.03.005, 6. Image, Download Hi-res Our results suggest that there were about 100 million dengue infections resulting in about 40 000 deaths in 2017. The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update of the 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. (2006) 49:26–41. Page Transparency See More. Physical Properties of Tissue. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Click on the [INTRANET] button above without putting in the credentials. The role of measurement variability and what an aspiring clinician scientist can do before it is too late. Table 12: Sri Lanka - SDIS database 37 Box 5.1 Methodology 38 Box 5.2 Accuracy and reliability 39 Box 5.3 Serviceability 39 Box 5.4 Accessibility 40 Box 5.5 Credibility 40 … Dengue: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. The effect of image quality on test-retest reproducibility of 3D-STE derived dyssynchrony indices has not been reported and evidence on systematic bias related to image quality is limited. Metabolic pathways involving intra- and extracellular products of nonenzymatic glycation (advanced glycation end products [AGEs]) have been implicated in hyperglycemic nerve damage. RS-SDI correlated moderately with SDI-volume (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001), whereas LS-SDI correlated weakly (r = 0.35, p = 0.0025) (Figure 2). The institutional review board approved the study protocol and informed consent was obtained from all participants at the time of examination. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. Each sheet of neoprene rubber was placed between the skin and the transducer with ultrasound gel on both sides after which images were captured. Only CS-Di and RS-Di showed fair to good inter-observer reproducibility, being poor for LS-Di and PTS-Di (Table 6). Dengue is a major public health challenge worldwide. Table 6. Dit geldt ook voor een aantal in behandeling zijnde serviceverzoeken. Inter-observer reproducibility based on re-reading the good quality scans (N = 10). As shown in the results, most countries with the greatest dengue burden were regions with a low to middle SDI. doi: 10.21037/cdt.2017.03.12, 34. $173.00 + $15.95 shipping . D'Andrea A, Caso P, Cuomo S, Salerno G, Scarafile R, Mita C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hence, we aimed to report the dengue burden in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. (C) An example of a 3DE with an optimal quality reference (no neoprene), mild (2 mm neoprene), moderate (3 mm neoprene), and severe (4 mm neoprene) impairment of 3DE image quality obtained from the same participant in study 2. In other words, intra-industry information transfers are defined as the events in which the valuation of other firms is affected by the information about one firm in the same industry (Foster, 1981; Guo, 2017). In a large meta-analysis, 3DE demonstrated 94% feasibility for the assessment of LVMD, and SDI-volume showed good intra- and inter-observer reproducibility based on re-reading scans [interobserver ICC = 0.92 (95% CI 0.88, 0.95) and intraobserver ICC = 0.95 (95% CI 0.93, 0.97)] (16). CP receives support from the British Heart Foundation (CS/15/6/31468). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Initiatives (SDIs) - Critical Success Factors . Wij willen hier een beschrijving geven, maar de site die u nu bekijkt staat dit niet toe. 1295 Rardin Drive (1,847.50 mi) … For example, Li [] described PolarHub, an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards-compliant web crawler, semantic search engine, and search result visualization tool that aggregates global, spatially enabled arctic web services and data repositories. Intel (INTC) Intra-Day Move May Be Overdone - RBC December 29, 2020 1:57 PM EST Tweet. Bekijk het profiel van test intra 3 op LinkedIn, de grootste professionele community ter wereld. Cardiovasc. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. Speed of Sound in Four Elastomers. All analyses were performed in Stata version 15.1 (StataCorp LLC, USA). (2006) 40:244–50. $144.46. (2017) 7:317–24. Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yodwut C, Weinert L, Klas B, Lang RM, Mor-Avi V. Effects of frame rate on three-dimensional speckle-tracking-based measurements of myocardial deformation. Test-retest reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Impact Factor 3.915 | CiteScore 3.7More on impact ›, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, China. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of World Medical Association (WMA). JZ and HLC designed the study and accessed the database and that they confirm the accuracy of the database used. Suboptimal image analyses showed higher mean difference (±SD) and wider limit of agreement for all 3D-STE drive LV dyssynchrony indices compared to good image analyses. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. Ben je het eens met de sterrenscore van de Jong Intra Vakanties? Sample size formulas for estimating intraclass correlation coefficients with precision and assurance. All other relevant data are available upon request to the corresponding author. By design, the study was conducted in healthy individuals with good echocardiographic windows since this allowed us to achieve a realistic degree of intentional image impairment to compare with good quality reference images. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 3D-STE has theoretical advantages over other ultrasound-based methods for quantification of LVMD as it allows comprehensive evaluation of active contraction of the myocardium along different myocardial vectors simultaneously, and may therefore provide a better representation of LVMD (15). Meanwhile, the global age-standardised death rate increased from 0.31 (0.14–0•56) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 0.53 (0.23–0•65) per 100 000 population in 2017. The age-standardised incidence rate per 100 000 population-at the global level increased from 431.6 (8.4–961.0) in 1990 to 1371.3 (834.5–2079.3) in 2017 (Supplementary Table 1). The acquisition of the first dataset was performed according to EAE/ASE recommendations (27). Lastinger JL, Groves ID Jr. This is important for public health officials and policy makers worldwide to implement interventions to slow down the rising global burden of dengue. ZLZ and HLC drafted the manuscript. Dengue is one of the most common vector-borne diseases globally, however, its burden is poorly quantified. FFP2 MASK FFP2 CE EN 149 2001 mask respiratory ffp2 mask . Table 4. Table 3. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2016. Dengue is reported to be hyperendemic in most English-speaking Caribbean countries, with an epidemic occurring every 4–5 years between 1997 and 2009 [. Spragg DD, Kass DA. We acknowledge a number of limitations in this study. Detection of multiple blood feeding in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) during a single gonotrophic cycle using a histologic technique. Intra Energy : Raises Funds to Advance Minas do Lurio Gold Project in Mozambique; Shares Rise 57% About See All. All authors contributed to data acquisition, data analysis, or data interpretation, and all reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript. Bland and Altman analysis by image quality is shown in Table S1 and Figure S1. Shun-Shin M, Francis DP. Our study is the most comprehensive and up-to-date report of the estimates for dengue incidence, deaths and DALYs by age, sex, and location from 1990 to 2017. Bekijk de Helpende (Intramuraal) vacature bij DuoZorg Uitzendbureau in Spijkenisse op 3DE examination was perfumed using an EPIQ7 ultrasound machine (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA) equipped with a X5-1 Xmatrix-array transducer by an experienced, British Society of Echocardiography accredited sonographer as previously described (26). (2012) 25:978–85. Forgot account? doi: 10.1093/ejechocard/jer021, 12. The association between socio-demographic index (SDI) and dengue-related DALYs suggested that the lowest age-standardised DALY rates were found in countries in the low and high-SDI quintile in 2017, and from 1990 to 2017, the age-standardized DALY rate tended to increase in regions with the lowest SDI but declined in regions with the highest SDI. Aly MF, Kleijn SA, de Boer K, Abd El-Hady YA, Sorour KA, Kandil HI, et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. The protocol was approved by the UCL REC. Eur J Echocardiogr. MB), Help with Chung ES, Leon AR, Tavazzi L, Sun JP, Nihoyannopoulos P, Merlino J, et al. Bijnens BH, Cikes M, Claus P, Sutherland GR. Volume-, circumferential strain-, and principal tangential strain-derived SDIs correlated closely. It is difficult to assess this bias in observational studies examining correlations between reliability and scan quality since these associations are confounded by factors such as age, adiposity, or other (potentially unmeasured) risk factors that may jointly influence scan quality and dyssynchrony measures (23). We found that sub-optimal image quality did not introduce a systematic bias on 3D-STE derived strain-based LV dyssynchrony indices, although there was some evidence of underestimation of volume-based dyssynchrony indices with poorer image quality. Accès à l’intranet du SDIS d’Ille-et-VIlaine Cet accès est réservé au personnel du SDIS. Bedrijfsgegevens. ZLZ and JZ contributed to data collection, data analysis, data interpretation and literature search. Urbanization increases Aedes albopictus larval habitats and accelerates mosquito development and survivorship. Dengue viral infection in Indonesia: epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, and mutations from an observational cohort study. An update on dengue vaccine development, challenges, and future perspectives. Image analysis was perfumed using 4D LV-Analysis software (TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Germany, 2015) by a single blinded reader. Privacy Policy   Terms and Conditions. See actions taken by the people who manage and post content. See more of Sdis 57 on Facebook. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.06.043, 14. Machine settings including gain, sector width, and depth were adjusted by the operator to maximize the quality of images ensuring clear visualization of LV endocardial borders and avoiding echo drop-out. Am J Cardiol. Bias was assessed using Bland Altman analysis and presented as the mean difference with limits of agreement between scans of different image quality. doi: 10.1111/echo.12965, 3. Mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony in heart failure patients with narrow QRS duration as assessed by three-dimensional speckle area tracking strain. Background: 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) is a novel method to quantify left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony. A new independent predictor of severe cardiac events in heart failure patients. The study was performed by a single observer which is a strength in that it avoids the influence of inter-observer variability but limits its applicability to typical clinical practice. Indonesia, the most populated country in Southeast Asia, witnessed a great increase in the age-standardised incidence rate over the study period, while in contrast, the age-standardised death and attributable DALY rate largely decreased. The longitudinal axis of the LV in all apical views were further aligned manually if needed using the mitral valve annulus and the apex as anatomical landmarks. Further work is required to establish whether differences in 3D-STE LV dyssynchrony indices have any prognostic importance. SDIs have been used to assess, quantify and evaluate performance of a unit that may be as large as a country or … Measuring performance on the Healthcare access and quality index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the global burden of disease study 2016. 3 people follow this. Widening of the QRS duration on ECG is widely used as a marker of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony. 25 people follow this. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2009.09.020, 15. There was a nonlinear association between the socio-demographic index and the healthcare access and quality index and age-standardised DALY rates. The highest burden of dengue is in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean. Data on dengue burden in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 were obtained from the Global Health Data Exchange GBD Results Tool (, The SDI is a composite indicator of a geographical location's development status. although the authors only provided a re-read reliability assessment of AS derived dyssynchrony indices (21); the test-retest reliability of these indices has not been previously assessed. Majority of participants had low or normal BMI. Department and Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, Department of Dermatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan No.1 Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, Department of Respiratory Diseases, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Intra-observer reproducibility based on re-reading the good quality scans (N = 10). We show that when image quality is optimal volume-based LV dyssynchrony indices have acceptable test-retest reliability (albeit noticeably lower than re-reading reliability), but that the test-retest reliability of volume-based LV dyssynchrony indices is substantially lower for sub-optimal images. Gorcsan J III, Sogaard P, Bax JJ, Singh JP, Abraham WT, Borer JS, et al. (2011) 24:277–313. 2020. Velocity and deformation imaging for the assessment of myocardial dysfunction. Utility of comprehensive assessment of strain dyssynchrony index by speckle tracking imaging for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. Three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) strain derived systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) and impaired quality 3DE images. Cai Q, Ahmad M. Left ventricular dyssynchrony by three-dimensional echocardiography: current understanding and potential future clinical applications. Results: Test-retest reproducibility was better for most indices when restricting the analysis to good quality images; nevertheless, only volume-, circumferential strain-, and principal tangential strain-derived LV dyssynchrony indices achieved fair to good reliability. We used data from the GBD 2017 to provide the most up-to-date estimates on a wide range of health measures related to dengue at the global, regional, and country-specific levels for 21 regions and, 195 countries and territories as well as, by sex, age group, and socio-demographic index (SDI). Deze vernieuwe Master Touch houtskoolbarbecue heeft namelijk het Weber Gourmet Barbecue System. All indices were normalized to cardiac cycle length and reported as %. This article takes a close look at recent trends, focusing on total intra-EU trade in goods and the most traded products. The complex relationship between weather and dengue virus transmission in Thailand. Urbanization resulted in rapid population growth and substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Aedes mosquitoes [. (2011) 12:26–32. (1995) 91:1739–48. Tanaka H, Hara H, Adelstein EC, Schwartzman D, Saba S, Gorcsan J III. The use of healthy individuals makes generalization to specific cardiac pathologies difficult but at least some of our findings are likely to be relevant to studies of diseased populations since sub-optimal image quality is more likely in unhealthy individuals. Tijdschr. Cancel Unsubscribe. Job Title. We report the burden of dengue, including incidence, mortality and DALYs, by age, sex, and SDI from 1990 to 2017, using all available data based on standardised GBD methods at the global, regional, and national levels. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised incidence, mortality and DALYs rates increased in most countries. Circulation. KHARTOUM Burundi Mali SudanN’DJAMENA Kenya Guinea Burkina Faso Ghana (Train Rep. Congo Liberia Cote Salmon farmer Grieg Seafood fattens its green bond by $57 million The Norwegian group is one of the first seafood companies to issue a green bond. In this paper, we presented the most up-to-date estimates of the incidence, mortality, and DALYs for dengue in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. (2012) 126:1784–800. Long-term epidemiological dynamics of dengue in Barbados - one of the English-speaking Caribbean countries. In study 2, sub-optimal quality images were acquired by impairing ultrasound propagation using neoprene rubber sheets (thickness 2, 3, and 4 mm) mimicking mildly, moderately, and severely impaired images, respectively. For both studies test-retest reproducibility was assessed. Sign In. Dengue remains a substantial public health challenge worldwide. The results of this study could be useful for policy makers to implement cost-effective interventions and reduce the dengue burden, particularly in countries with high incidence or increasing burden. Indonesia (258.24 [117.91–318.35]), the Philippines (219.53 [108.83–307.08]), and Tonga (181.10 [107.07–282.15]) had the highest age-standardised DALY rates in 2017 (, Compared to 1990, the number of deaths due to dengue increased from approximately 16 957 (7 613–30 091) to 40 467 (17 620–49 778) in 2017, an increase of around 24 000 deaths. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. In study 2 study, an additional 21 healthy individuals were recruited to further quantify the impact of sub-optimal image quality. The pattern of the age-standardised death rate by sex across age groups was relatively similar to the age-standardised DALY rate (, The patterns of the age-standardised DALY rate versus the SDI were similar to those of age-standardised prevalence rates. Med. Intra-observer reproducibility based on re-reading the same (good quality) scans showed good to excellent reproducibility of all dyssynchrony indices except for LS derived dyssynchrony indices (Table 5). UIs were calculated from 1000 draw-level estimates for each parameter, and 95% UIs were defined by the 25th and 975th values of the ordered 1000 estimates; a 95% UI excluding 0 was considered to be statistically significant. Mizisin and H.C. Powell The frequent occurrence of neurologic complications of diabetes has long been recognized and no doubt contributed to the erroneous belief of nineteenth-century physicians that diabetes mellitus was a disease of the nervous system. Overall, there were 2 922 630 DALYs (1 629 424–3 967 492) attributed to dengue in 2017 globally, an increase of 107.6% since 1990 (1 407 571 DALYs [624 016.4–2 510 025]), and the age-standardised DALY rate increased from 26.10 (11.57–46.53) per 100 000 population to 38.25 (21.33–51.93) per 100 000 population between 1990 and 2017. Front. First, the limited availability and quality of surveillance data from high-burden countries is an important limitation. (2012) 31:3972–81. At the country level, the age-standardised incidence rate per 100 000 population for dengue was highest in Barbados (4179.9 [2619.9–6185.4]), followed by Dominica (4152.1 [2680.9–6012.3]), Indonesia (4117.1 [2427.4–6378.5] per 100 000 population) and India (4072.9 [2409.4–6295.3]). Send to a Friend. 3 people like this. 2020. The results of this study could be useful for policy makers to implement cost-effective interventions and reduce the dengue burden, particularly in countries with high incidence or increasing burden. The information provided in this study could be crucial for researchers, public health officials and health policy makers to implement cost-effective interventions to be able to confront the increasing dengue burden. Theory & Practice of Sustainable Development Fall II 2015 SDIS-5500-01 3 Credits Instructor: Dr. Rachel Slocum Room: SGC 101 Office #: 304A Meeting time: Tuesday Office phone: 802-258-3539 8:30 – 12:15 Email: Office hours: 12:15-1:45 Tue/Fri. Finally, we examined the shape of the association of dengue in terms of age-standardised prevalence and DALYs-with the SDI using the fit spline models [, In 2017 an estimated 104 771 911 (95% UI; 63 759 019–158 870 031) individuals had dengue worldwide with 52 357 259 (31 887 948–79 333 365) occurring among females and 52 414 653 (31 871 071–79 536 666) among males, compared with 23 283 274 (453 180.7–51 840 670) in 1990 (Supplementary Table 1). - Strain-based SDI, calculated as the SD of time to peak segmental strain over 16 LV-segments from LS, CS, RS, and principle tangential strain (PTS) which is a composite 3D measure of CS and LS. Téléphone 03 87 79 45 00 Fax 03 87 79 45 19. 26. Bekijk wat 1.170 klanten hebben geschreven en deel je eigen ervaringen. Our data show that the age-standardised incidence rate increased from 1990 to 2017. Intra-observer reproducibility based on re-reading the same (good quality) scans and was performed by the first reader (LA) blinded to the original measurements after 2–3 months interval. Twenty non-elite youth male soccer players (U15, n = 10, mean age = 13.5 ± 1.2 years; U17, n = 10, mean age = 16.3 ± 0.5 years) were selected. Stat Med. Our study was performed on healthy individuals with good image quality (before image degradation) to maximize our ability to detect effects. All datasets relevant to this study are included in the manuscript/Supplementary Files. Vecera J, Penicka M, Eriksen M, Russell K, Bartunek J, Vanderheyden M, et al. December 18, World Health Organization. SDIS de la Moselle État-Major Direction départementale . SC and LYC revised the final draft of the manuscript. $133.00 + $13.00 shipping . Björn Rathsman, Kerstin Jensen-Urstad, Thomas Nyström, Intensified insulin treatment is associated with improvement in skin microcirculation and ischaemic foot ulcer in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a long-term follow-up study, Diabetologia, 10.1007/s00125-014-3248-2, 57, 8, (1703-1710), (2014). In study 2 using neoprene sheets, there was evidence of a small degree of systematic underestimation in volume derived dyssynchrony indices with increasingly poor image quality (Table 4). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. Measures (normalized to cardiac cycle duration) were volume- and strain-based SDIs defined as the standard deviation of time to minimum segmental values, and volume- and strain-derived dispersion indices. The increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) commonly observed when the spine is loaded during physical activities is hypothesized to increase lumbar spine stability. Create New Account. LA performed the data collection and the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. Analysis was performed using mixed linear modeling method to assess bias and reliability (fixed effects: scan occasion and image quality, random effect: participant identity). The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Burden of dengue by SDI and the HAQ index. The method has been implemented on top of the VVC Test Model 3.0 (VTM-3.0), with the result of obtaining a gain of 0.57% with encoding and decoding run-times of 112% and 102% respectively for the All Intra configuration and a gain of 0.29% with encoding and decoding run-times of 102% and 101% respectively for the Random Access configuration. Two prospective sub-studies (study 1 and study 2; conducted at different times) were performed. The global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. AH works in a unit that receives support from the UK Medical Research Council (Programme Code MC_UU_12019/1), he also receives support from the British Heart Foundation (PG/15/75/31748, CS/15/6/31468, CS/13/1/30327), and the National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Center. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Er vinden maximaal zes behandelingen plaats. Matsumoto K, Tanaka H, Tatsumi K, Miyoshi T, Hiraishi M, Kaneko A, et al.