It's free! Seiner Ansicht nach begann der Kontakt zwischen Afrika und Europa nicht erst im 18. However, Diop thought, as it is called, is paradigmatic to Afrocentricity. The new topics did not relate to ancient Egypt but were concerned with the forms of organisation of African and European societies and how they evolved. View Elhadji Ndao’s full profile. Under the "true negro" approach, Diop contended that those peoples who did not meet the stereotypical classification were attributed to mixture with outside peoples, or were split off and assigned to Caucasoid clusters. This has shown that most of human genetic variation (some 85–90%) occurs within localized population groups, and that race only can account for 6–10% of the variation. He declined to seek the opinion of other scholars and answer their criticism, although this is the normal procedure in academic debate. Conversations With Cheikh Anta Diop Cheikh Anta Diop Ces entretiens sont le produit d'une série de conversations enre gistrées au magnétophone à Dakar en février 1976, exactement 10 ans avant la mort de ce savant le 7 février 1986. Alan R. Templeton, "Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective". [43] Critics of this study in turn hold that it achieves its results by manipulation of data clusters and analysis categories, casting a wide net to achieve generic, general statistical similarities with populations such as Europeans and Indians. [43], But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka, the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. He established and was the director of the radiocarbon laboratory at the IFAN (Institut Fondamental de l'Afrique Noire). [9], Born in Thieytou, Diourbel Region, Senegal, Diop was born to an aristocratic Muslim Lebu family in Senegal where he was educated in a traditional Islamic school. The phenotype is a reality, physical appearance is a reality. With the growing influence of religious phenomena since the late 1970s, young students are developing an Islamic activism that tends to replace the revolutionary traditions of the student movement and challenge the secular nature of the academic sphere. Sind Sie ein Autor? They contend the test is inappropriate to apply to ancient Egyptian mummies, due to the effects of embalming and deterioration over time. Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in the reality of the Negro world. It concludes with a lengthy interview with Diop. Cheikh-Anta Diop (Autor) › Entdecken Sie Cheikh-Anta Diop bei Amazon. When alive he was Africa's greatest thinker. Diop's early condemnation of European bias in his 1954 work Nations Negres et Culture,[42] and in Evolution of the Negro World[43] has been supported by some later scholarship. [3], Diop's work has posed questions about cultural bias in scientific research. Diop attempted to demonstrate that the African peoples shared certain commonalities, including language roots and other cultural elements like regicide, circumcision, totems, etc. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. Die Debatte zwischen Cheikh Anta Diop und seinen damaligen Kontrahenten wird mittlerweile in der Black-Athena-Debatte über die umstrittenen Thesen des britischen Historikers Martin Bernals weitergeführt, der einen Einfluss Ägyptens auf die Kultur des Griechenlands der klassischen Antike festgestellt haben will. The entire region shows a basic unity based on both the Nile and Sahara, and cannot be arbitrarily diced up into pre-assigned racial zones. Diop's fundamental criticism of scholarship on the African peoples was that classification schemes pigeonholed them into categories defined as narrowly as possible, while expanding definitions of Caucasoid groupings as broadly as possible. However, from the 1930s archaeologists and historians re-discovered such past African achievements as Great Zimbabwe, and from the 1940s linguists started to demonstrate the flaws in the hypothesis. Cheikh Anta Diop is the author of The African Origin of Civilization, Civilization or Barbarism, and Precolonial Black Africa. Cheikh Anta Diop was awarded the Grand prix de la mémoire of the GPLA 2015; and the University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar bears his name. 65–92. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair"[41] Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). Diop consistently held that Africans could not be pigeonholed into a rigid type that existed somewhere south of the Sahara, but they varied widely in skin color, facial shape, hair type, height, and a number of additional factors, just like other human populations. [89] Tourneux notes that Diop accused previous linguists of being unscientific and obscuring the truth. When he published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture (Negro Nations and Culture), it made him one of the most controversial historians of his time. 13 talking about this. He claimed this put African historical linguistics on a secure basis for the first time. Alain Froment, 1991. Youths have to act! Sie ist benannt nach dem senegalesischen Gelehrten Cheikh Anta Diop Geschichte der Universität. (1977), Parenté génétique de l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines. This is considered to be an indigenous development based on microevolutionary principles (climate adaptation, drift and selection) and not the movement of large numbers of outside peoples into Egypt. [4] Cheikh Anta Diop University (formerly known as the University of Dakar), in Dakar, Senegal, is named after him. These, he held, formed part of a tapestry that laid the basis for African cultural unity, which could assist in throwing off colonialism. [101] Since he struggled against how racial classifications were used by the European academy in relation to African peoples, much of his work has a strong 'race-flavored' tint. All Greenberg's African Language papers were republished The Languages of Africa (1966), Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Frank M. Snowden, Jr., "Bernal's 'Blacks', Herodotus, and the other classical evidence". Dakar Dem Dikk est une société de transport urbain au capital de von Cheikh Anta Diop , Harold Salemson , Harold J. Salemson ( 26 ) 9,61 € This expanded edition continues Diop's campaign for the political and economic unification of the nations of black Africa. It is these relationships which have played a role in history. Diop MOUSSA of Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Dakar (UCAD) | Read 5 publications | Contact Diop MOUSSA Many academics reject the term black, however, or use it exclusively in the sense of a sub-Saharan type. Die Université Cheikh Anta Diop ist eine Hochschule in Dakar. APAM had been set up in 1936 by people on the political left wing to bring culture to wider audiences. This same modern scholarship however in turn challenges aspects of Diop's work, particularly his notions of a worldwide black phenotype. Cheikh Anta Diop (* 29. [66], Analyses of other scholars (Hiernaux 1975, Keita, 1990 et al.) Nach Anta Diop hätten die Schwarzafrikaner nicht nur Zivilisationen (Königreich Benin, Reich von Kusch, Mali, Songhai, Ghana, Swahili, Groß-Simbabwe, Aksum, Kanem-Bornu und insbesondere Ägypten) hervorgebracht, sondern beherrschten sehr früh die Technik der Metallgewinnung und -verarbeitung und hätten dadurch eine fortschreitende Urbanisierung bewirkt und auch eine fortschrittliche Verwaltung entwickelt. Pythagoras soll … "Origine et evolution de l'Homme dans la Pensée de Cheikh Anta Diop: une Analyse Critique". [28][29] In the July 1973 paper entitled "La pigmentation des anciens Égyptiens. Diop wurde 1923 in eine Wolof-Familie geboren. The current structure of the Egyptian population may be the result of further influence of neighbouring populations on this ancestral population[109], Diop disputed sweeping definitions of mixed races in relation to African populations, particularly when associated with the Nile Valley. Mainstream Egyptologists such as F. Yurco note that among peoples outside Egypt, the Nubians were closest ethnically to the Egyptians, shared the same culture in the predynastic period, and used the same pharaonoic political structure. Diop, Cheik Anta (1973), in Preface (pp. This black, even if on the level of his cells he is closer to a Swede than Peter Botha, when he is in South Africa he will still live in Soweto. 49–54. Anta Diop studierte auch Afrikanische Geschichte, Ägyptologie, Linguistik, Anthropologie und Ökonomie. [83] Obenga expressly rejected Greenberg's division of most African languages into the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic families, treating all African languages except the Khoisan languages and Berber as a single unit, négro-africain. Diop also acknowledged that the ancient Egyptians absorbed "foreign" genes at various times in their history (the Hyksos for example) but held that this admixture did not change their essential ethnicity. [citation needed], The Swiss archaeologist Charles Bonnet's discoveries at the site of Kerma shed some light on the theories of Diop. as is grouping the complexity of human cultures into two camps. Ngom, Gilbert. A majority of academics disavow the term black for the Egyptians, but there is no consensus on substitute terminology. Defenders maintain that Diop's critics routinely misrepresent his views, typically defining negroes as a 'true' type south of the Sahara to cast doubt on his work,[98] It has been claimed that questions such as "were the ancient Egyptians black?" (1970–1972), Égyptien ancien et négro-africain, pp. Februar 1986 in Dakar) war ein senegalesischer Historiker, Anthropologe und Politiker. Er verbrachte 15 Jahre dort und studierte Physik bei Frédéric Joliot-Curie, dem Schwiegersohn von Marie Curie, außerdem übersetzte er auch Teile von Einsteins Relativitätstheorie in seine Muttersprache Wolof. as one localized Nile valley population. See S.O.Y. [10] He obtained the colonial equivalent of the metropolitan French baccalauréat in Senegal before moving to Paris to study for a degree.[11]. [23], Black Africa: the economic and cultural basis for a federated state is the book that best expresses Diop's political aims and objectives. But what counts in reality is the phenotype. (2006), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:14. A number of individuals such as US college professor Leonard Jeffries[102] have advanced a more chauvinist view, citing Diop's work. [48] As regards the key Badarian group, a 2005 study by anthropologist S. O. Y. Keita of Badarian crania in predynastic upper Egypt found that the predynastic Badarian series clusters much closer with the tropical African series than European samples. 88–93. Author: Cheikh Anta Diop: Translated by: Harold Salemson: Publisher: Chicago Review Press, 1988: ISBN: 1613747454, 9781613747452: Length: 240 pages: Subjects : History › Africa › General. These concepts are laid out in Diop's Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in Culture and Development, 1946–1960,[63] and The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity,,[64][65] These concepts can be summarized as follows: Zones of Confluence: Meeting or mingling area for the two cradles above, Most anthropologists see commonalities in African culture but only in a very broad, generic sense, intimately linked with economic systems, etc. This seemed to apply in matters both of evolution and gene pool makeup. Dezember 1923 in Théytou, in der Region Diourbel (Senegal); † 1986 in Dakar) war einer der bekanntesten Ägyptologen des afrikanischen Kontinents. Laut Anta Diop wären die afrikanischen Kulturen durch die Kolonialisierung und den Sklavenhandel nach und nach zerstört worden. (1978). Bibliographic information. ', in Sylvia Hochfield and. [49], Diop's theory on variability is also supported by a number of scholars mapping human genes using modern DNA analysis. Perhaps Diop's most notable idea is his insistence in placing Nile Valley peoples in their local and African context, drawing a picture of a stable, ancient population deriving much of its genetic inheritance from that context, as opposed to attempts to split, cluster, subdivide, define and regroup them into other contexts. Die Université Cheikh Anta Diop wird oft als Nachfolgerin der l'École de Médecine de l'AOF – Afrique Occidentale Française bezeichnet. Indeed, he eschewed racial chauvinism, arguing: "We apologise for returning to notions of race, cultural heritage, linguistic relationship, historical connections between peoples, and so on. Es uno de los historiadores más importante del siglo XXI S. O. Y. Keita, "Royal incest and Diffusion in Africa", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "ANKH: Egyptologie et Civilisations Africaines", "Le musée vivant et le centenaire de l'abolition de l'esclavage: pour une reconnaissance des cultures africaines", "The Melanin Dosage Test by Cheikh Anta Diop", Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script, "Apportionment of Racial Diversity: A Review", "The Use and Misuse of language in the study of African history", "The use and misuse of language in the study of African history", "The Perpetual Black Liars | Huffington Post", "Contemptuousness of a 'Sub-Saharan Africa'". They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. The same method was applied by four of Diop's collaborators to Mbosi,[78] Duala,[79] Basa,[80] Fula[81][82] and a few other languages. He declared that the peoples of the region were all Africans, and decried the "bizarre and dangerous myths" of previously biased scholarship, "marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism. Senegalese politician, historian and scientist (1923-1986), Critique of previous scholarship on Africa, Physical variability of the African people, Cultural unity of African peoples as part of a southern cradle, Diop's thought and criticism of modern racial clustering, Diop and the arbitrary sorting of categories, Diop and criticism of the Saharan barrier thesis, Diop and criticism of true Negro classification schemes, Diop and criticism of mixed-race theories, Molefi Kete Asante, "Cheikh Anta Diop: An Intellectual Portrait" (Univ of Sankore Press: December 30, 2007). Diop, Cheik Anta, translated by Mercer Cook (1974). Diop insisted on a broad interpretation similar to that used in classifying European populations as white. One of Diop's most controversial issues centers on the definition of who is a true Black person. Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. (Reference: Cheikh Anta Diop: "Precolonial Black Africa". 105 connections. "[96][97], Academic detractors charge Diop with racism, based particularly on his claim that the ancient Egyptians were black. Keita and Rick A. Kittles, "The Persistence of Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence". [5], BiogrAfrique am 2. Throughout history, it has been the phenotype which has been at issue, we mustn't lose sight of this fact. Diop's concept was of a fundamentally Black population that incorporated new elements over time, rather than mixed-race populations crossing arbitrarily assigned racial zones. Thierno Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Mbemba Jabbi (Université du Texas) Abdoulaye Kane (Université de Floride) Muhammadu MO Kah (Université américaine du Nigéria et Université de Gambie) Alpha Amadou Barry Bano (Université de Sonfonia) Yacouba Banhoro (Université de Ouaga 1 Joseph Ki-Zerbo) Dialo Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Rahmane Idrissa (Centre d'ét 89–90. At a UNESCO colloquium in Athens in 1981, he asserted: "I don't like to use the notion of race (which does not exist)... We must not attach an obsessional importance to it. Sanders, Edith R. (1969), The Hamitic Hypothesis; pp. Dies machte ihn zu einem der umstrittensten Historiker seiner Zeit. He proposed that a single African language be used across the continent for official, educational, and cultural purposes. Mixed-race theories have also been challenged by contemporary scholars in relation to African genetic diversity. The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands. In diesem Zusammenhang wird der senegalesische Historiker, Anthropologe, Physiker und Politiker Cheikh Anta Diop wichtig (29. "Apportionment of Racial Diversity"; Keita and Kittles, "The Persistence...", op. Ancient Egyptians such as the Badarians show greater statistical affinities to tropical African types and are not identical to Europeans. [105] Modern critics of the racial clustering approach coming after Diop echo this objection, using data from the oldest Nile Valley groupings as well as current peoples. (F. Yurco "An Egyptological Review", 1996)[40], Diop's work has been subjected to criticism from a number of scholars. Diop focuses on Africa, not Greece. Cheikh Anta Diop University predates Senegalese independence and grew out of several French institutions set up by the colonial administration. Your colleagues, classmates, and 500 million other professionals are on LinkedIn. His research has become under-regarded because he did not accept this academic discipline. Obenga, Théophile (1992), "Le 'chamito-sémitique' n'existe pas". "[54] Trigger's conclusions were supported by Egyptologist Frank Yurco, who viewed the Egyptians, Nubians, Ethiopians, Somalians, etc. Dezember 1923 in Thieytou, Diourbel-Region – 7. [47], It is held by Keita et al. He ultimately translated parts of Einstein's Theory of Relativity into his native Wolof. Arbitrarily classifying Maasai, Ethiopians, Shillouk, Nubians, etc., as Caucasian is thus problematic, since all these peoples are northeast African populations and show normal variation well within the 85–90% specified by DNA analysis. Product details. Finden Sie alle Bücher, Informationen zum Autor und mehr. Diop repudiated racism or supremacist theories, arguing for a more balanced view of African history than he felt it was getting during his era. 79–104 in Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier, Chrétien, Jean-Pierre and, Perrot Claude-Hélène (eds). Siehe Suchergebnisse für diesen Autor. One approach that has bridged the gap between Diop and his critics is the non-racial bio-evolutionary approach. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth Or Reality, Summary of Cheikh Anta Diop's Work (in French), Cheikh Anta Diop, The Pharaoh of Knowledge, Listen to interviews with Cheikh Anta Diop (in French), Organisation of African Trade Union Unity, Pan-African Freedom Movement for East and Central Africa, Popular and Social League of the Great Sahara Tribes,, National Democratic Rally (Senegal) politicians, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2016, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The first, "Le Bloc des Masses Sénégalaises" (BMS), was formed in 1961. [70] Joseph Greenberg rejected Meinhof's and Seligman's views on "Hamite" cultural history, and argued that the term "Hamite" should be completely abandoned, and replaced in linguistics by Afroasiatic languages for the family of five coordinate branches (Semitic, Berber, Ancient Egyptian, Cushitic and Chadic), all of which but the Chadic languages had long been recognised as one group. 30 Jahre später zeichnet KEMTIYU ein Portrait Cheikh Anta Diops: Bahnbrechender Wissenschaftler mit unersättlichem Wissensdurst und aufrichtige und hellsichtige politische Führungspersönlichkeit, von einigen verehrt, von anderen verschrien, und den meisten unbekannt. In his "Evolution of the Negro World" in Présence Africaine (1964), Diop castigated European scholars who posited a separate evolution of various types of humankind and denied the African origin of homo sapiens. For example, ancient Egyptian matches with Indians and Europeans are generic in nature (due to the broad categories used for matching purposes with these populations) and are not due to gene flow. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 25. ; Hiernaux, J. Tourneux (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. He asserted that archaeological and anthropological evidence supported his view that Pharaohs were of Negroid origin. He did not believe that such a population needed to be arbitrarily split into tribal or racial clusters. [40], A book chapter by archeologist Kevin MacDonald, published in 2004, argued that there is little basis for positing a close connection between Dynastic Egypt and the African interior. There is a contradiction here: all the anthropologists agree in stressing the sizable proportion of the Negroid element—almost a third and sometimes more—in the ethnic [i.e. Diop took an innovative approach in his linguistic researches published in 1977, outlining his hypothesis of the unity of indigenous African languages beginning with the Ancient Egyptian language. He specified that he used the terms "negro", "black", "white" and "race" as "immediate givens" in the Bergsonian sense, and went on to suggest operational definitions of these terms. Mehr lesen. Ngom, Gilbert (1993), "La parenté génétique entre l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines moderns: L'exemple du duala". [62] His thought is thus not the "Stolen Legacy" argument of writers such as George James or the "Black Athena" notions of Martin Bernal. University of California, Santa Barbara, and James M. Burns, a professor in history at Clemson University, have both referred to Diop's writings of Ancient Egypt and his theories, characterizing it as "revisionist". Importantly it included not only francophone Africans, but English-speaking ones as well. 27 (1970–1972), pp. [88], The linguistic research of Diop and his school have been criticised by Henry Tourneux, a linguist specialising in the Fula language. The years of his life (1923-1986) were years of transition and change for African people and the whole world. Tourneux (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. This approach is associated with scholars who question the validity of race as a biological concept. Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. The authorities were in fear that he would disrupt the government and force a constitutional change which … In 1957 he registered his new thesis title "Comparative study of political and social systems of Europe and Africa, from Antiquity to the formation of modern states." [33] His forceful assertions that the original population of the Nile Delta was black and that Egyptians remained black-skinned until Egypt lost its independence, "was criticized by many participants". (2003–2004), "L'origine des Peuls : les principales thèses confrontées aux traditions africaines et à l'égyptologie". The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality by Cheikh Anta Diop(1989-07-01) | Cheikh Anta Diop | ISBN: 8601200618983 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Leiberman and Jackson 1995 "Race and Three Models of Human Origins". Seligman's Hamitic hypothesis stated that: "... the civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history the record of these peoples and of their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushman, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or…pastoralists ...The incoming Hamites were pastoral 'Europeans'-arriving wave after wave – better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes. Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris F, Gayraud RP, Spadoni JL, El-Chenawi F, Beraud-Colomb E., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt". Im Alter von 23 Jahren begann er in Paris sein Studium. As Egyptologist Frank Yurco notes: Diop held that scholarship in his era isolated extreme stereotypes as regards African populations, while ignoring or downplaying data on the ground showing the complex linkages between such populations. The party, though not officially recognized, continued strong political activity along the same lines as the BMS. Cheikh Anta Diop (ed.) The present of aquiline features for example, may not be necessarily a result of race mixture with Caucasoids, but simply another local population variant in situ. 97–8. It could seem to tempting to delude the masses engaged in a struggle for national independence by taking liberties with scientific truth, by unveiling a mythical, embellished past. Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. cit. Diop's presentation of his concepts at the Cairo UNESCO symposium on "The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of the Meroitic script", in 1974, argued that there were inconsistencies and contradictions in the way African data was handled. [24] This critical work constitutes a rational study of not only Africa's cultural, historic and geographic unity, but of Africa's potential for energy development and industrialization. Diop strongly refused to enter into any negotiations until two conditions were met. Cheikh Anta Diop was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and scholar of Afrocentricity. Erfahren Sie mehr über Author Central. Coon used racial rankings of inferiority and superiority, defined "true Blacks" as only those of cultures south of the Sahara, and grouped some Africans with advanced cultures with Caucasian clusters. Only upload a photograph of yourself; Photos of children, celebrities, pets, or illustrated cartoon characters will not be approved; Photos containing nudity, gore, or hateful themes are not permissible and may lead to the cancellation of your account Obenga, Théophile. Critics note that similar narrow definitions are not attempted with groups often classified as Caucasoid. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Cheikh Anta Diop sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Idea of peace, justice, goodness and optimism. In 1918, the French created the "école africaine de médecine" (African medical school), mostly to serve white and Métis students but also open to the small educated elite of the four free towns of Senegal with nominal French citizenship. All these factors combined, based on the formation of a federated and unified Africa, culturally and otherwise, are surmised to be the only way for Africa to become the power in the world that she should rightfully be. Séex Anta – Cheikh Anta (2016) von Ousmane William Mbaye,[2] der auf mehreren Festivals gezeigt wurde, u. a. beim FESPACO 2017 in Ouagadougou, wo er den Preis als Bester Dokumentarfilm gewann,[3] und dem International Film Festival Rotterdam. He was keenly aware of the difficulties that such a scientific effort would entail and warned that "It was particularly necessary to avoid the pitfall of facility. (24) Jean Vercoutter at the 1974 UNESCO conference.